Alignment of the porcine genome against seven other mammalian genomes (Supplementary Information) identified homologous synteny blocks (HSBs). Using porcine HSBs and stringent filtering criteria, 192 pig-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions (EBRs) were located. The number of porcine EBRs is comparable to the number of bovine-lineage-specific EBRs (100) reported earlier using a slightly lower resolution (500 kilobases (kb)), indicating that both lineages evolved with an average rate of ~2.1 large-scale rearrangements per million years after the divergence from a common cetartiodactyl ancestor ~60 Myr ago2. This rate compares to ~1.9 rearrangements per million years within the primate lineage (Supplementary Table 11). A total of 20 and 18 cetartiodactyl EBRs (shared by pigs and cattle) were detected using the pig and human genomes as a reference, respectively.
Innate immune genes tend to be highly conserved in metazoans, even in early divergent lineages such as Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, hydroids and sea anemones) and Porifera (sponges). However, constant and diverse selection pressures on the immune system have driven the expansion and diversification of different immune gene families in a lineage-specific manner. To investigate how the innate immune system has evolved in a subset of sea anemone species (Order: Actiniaria), we performed a comprehensive and comparative study using 10 newly sequenced transcriptomes, as well as three publically available transcriptomes, to identify the origins, expansions and contractions of candidate and novel immune gene families.
Korean researchers have sequenced and have begun analyzing the genome of the Far Eastern Amur leopard, Panthera pardus orientalis, an endangered sub-species of leopard found in southern Russia and northern China.
A comparative analysis of the genomes of Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae—and the proteins they are predicted to encode—was undertaken in the context of cellular, developmental, and evolutionary processes. The nonredundant protein sets of flies and worms are similar in size and are only twice that of yeast, but different gene families are expanded in each genome, and the multidomain proteins and signaling pathways of the fly and worm are far more complex than those of yeast. The fly has orthologs to 177 of the 289 human disease genes examined and provides the foundation for rapid analysis of some of the basic processes involved in human disease.
An intersting paper reviewed "An applications-focused review of comparative genomics tools: Capabilities, limitations and future challenges" http://bib.oxfordjournals.org/content/4/2/105.full.pdf
An intersting paper explaining comparative genomics in metazoan eukaryotes "COMPARATIVE GENOMICS: GENOME-WIDE ANALYSIS IN METAZOAN EUKARYOTES" https://www.cs.rice.edu/~devika/comp470/papers/ureta-vidal2003.pdf